HFEM Newsletter | July - September 2022

A new face of HFEM newsletter

Ergonomist Insight brings to you the latest Society’s news, events announcement, articles, and others. We would encourage all HFEM members, academics and industrial experts to utilize this platform for sharing their knowledge and views, especially related to recent ergonomics and human factors issues. 

Assoc. Prof. Dr. Ng Yee Guan

President, HFEM

Words from President

We are in the 11th year as a registered society. While this is a non-profit organization, we are still able to gather committed practitioners to contribute their valuable brain and sweats voluntarily for the society. I would like to extend my gratitude and appreciation to the members and past presidents for giving me the trust to lead the society in championing the cause in Ergonomics.

As the elected President of the society, I am truly honored to be able to work with such dedicated team.

Our task is to continue with the strategic plans identified by the members to ensure relevance of the society in upholding ergonomics as an important element of our every day life. We shall continue to work on RAGI (Rakyat, Academics, Government and Industry). This acronym was created by the Immediate Past President Prof Dr Halimahtun Khalid which also signifies the characteristics of ragi (Malay term for yeast) .

Check out our team for HFEM Executive Board 2021-2023. 

Send your article

We welcome you to share any articles for publishing in Ergonomist Insight. We welcome any articles in Bahasa or English, and this could be a book, paper or webinar summary, case studies, commentary or opinion, how-to article, news, Q&A essay, and others. We are open to publish ergonomics and human factors related topics, as well as other area related to product design, system design, UX and UI, human error, education and learning, etc.

Focus group discussion on health risk assessment gap analysis

22-23 March 2022 – HFEM representatives; President, Dr Ng Yee Guan and Board Member, Dr. Mohd Zubairy Shamsudin have participated in the Focus Group Discussion – Health Risk Assessment Gap Analysis Workshop that hosted by the Department of Occupational Safety and Health (DOSH). The workshop was held at National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH), Bangi.

Read more..

HFEM received SOCSO grants for training

HFEM attended the Majlis Taklimat dan Penyerahan Geran Bantuan Kewangan Perkeso kepada Institut dan Badan-Badan NGO 2022, at Menara Perkeso, Kuala LumpurThe Society was represented by the HFEM Secretary, Ts. Dr. Ahmad Khushairy Bin Makhtar.

HFEM received the total allocation of RM48,100 from PERKESO through Cawangan Pencegahan dan Promosi Kesihatan PERKESO, which would fund 11 training series under KKP Program (Keselamatan dan Kesihatan Pekerjaan).

Read more..

HFEM Quarterly Newsletter (July 2022)    |   Page 1

60 participants attended SOHELP training

HFEM has conducted three sessions of face-to-face SOHELP training on the following dates:

  • 30-31 March 2022 (Angsana Putra, Bangunan, TNCPI UPM)
  • 31 May – 1 June 2020 (Technocom Systems Sdn. Bhd.)
  • 7-8 June 2022 (Angsana Putra, Bangunan, TNCPI UPM)

Check out more information and photos here.

HFEM completed 11 ERA training sessions

Up to July 2022, HFEM has conducted 6 sessions of Initial Ergonomics Risk Assessment (ERA) and 5 sessions of Advanced ERA trainings. A total 178 participants has took part in the virtual and face-to-face trainings with our DOSH certified trainers.

Check out more information and photos here.

HFEM involved in OSH Master Plan 2025

26 February 2022 – HFEM has participated in the meeting of Pelan induk Keselamatan dan Kesihatan Pekerjaan 2021-2025 (OSHMP25) dan Peranan NGO Dalam Menjayakan OSHMP25.

Article

Membetulkan salah tanggapan terhadap ergonomik

Apabila mendengar perkataan ‘ergonomik’ atau faktor manusia (human factors), apakah yang terbayang di dalam fikiran? Kerusi pejabat? Papan kekunci? Meja IKEA?

Atau kerap kali kita mendengar bahawa pelaksaaan ergonomik di tempat kerja dan reka bentuk produk akan menelan belanja yang tinggi, justeru ia hanya mampu diaplikasi oleh industri atau pemilik perniagaan yang bermodal besar.

Falsafah utama dalam ergonomik adalah meletakkan manusia (atau pengguna) di tempat tertinggi dalam senarai keutamaan. Pengguna adalah komponen utama dalam proses reka bentuk, di samping aspek fungsi sesuatu produk, sistem, tempat kerja, atau pembentuk organisasi. Ciri-ciri pengguna seperti ukuran tubuh (antropometri), kebolehan dan keterbatasan fizikal, kemampuan pancaindera, keupayaan berfikir dan membuat keputusan, adalah antara aspek-aspek yang menentukan keberkesanan sesuatu produk apabila berada di tangan manusia.

Baca ulasan lanjut oleh Prof. Madya Dr. Dian Darina Indah dan Dr. Nor Kamaliana  Khamis di pautan berikut: Salah Faham Berkaitan Ergonomik

HFEM collaborates with other organization

HFEM has appointed the President, Assoc. Prof. Dr. Ng Yee Guan and the Secretary, Ts. Dr. Ahmad Khushairy as the official representatives for partnership with Applied Ergonomics Society (AES). Under this collaboration agreement, the Society will enjoy benefits from AES as stated in the agreement.

See more.. 

HFEM was invited to the 35th Annual General Meeting of the Asia Pacific Occupational Safety & Health Organization (APOSHO) on Friday 29th October in virtual meeting. One of the agenda of the meeting is to endorse HFEM as an APOSHO member.

See more..

HFEM Quarterly Newsletter (July 2022)    |   Page 2

"Berdasarkan penaksiran risiko dan mekanisme biomekanik tangan, maka dapatlah difahami bahawa untuk mengurangkan dan mencegah risiko gangguan rangka-otot tangan, ia perlu ditangani secara objektif."
Ts. Dr. Mohd Zubairy Shamsudin
Faculty of Health Sciences, Universiti Selangor

Article

Aplikasi ergonomik dalam kehidupan seharian

Risiko ergonomik pada peralatan playar serbaguna

Pada suatu hari, paip rumah saya mengalami kebocoran. Saya mengambil keputusan untuk membaikinya sendiri. Walau bagaimanapun, peralatan untuk tujuan tersebut tidak ada, iaitu perengkuh paip (pipe wrench).

Maka, saya ke kedai hardware untuk membeli peralatan yang dimaksudkan. Namun tidak ketemui perengkuh yang dimaksudkan. Saya membeli playar (plier) yang mempunyai fungsi untuk membuka dan memasang paip serta boleh digunakan untuk tujuan lain. Dengan kata lain, playar serbaguna. Namun, alat yang mempunyai fungsi serba guna mempunyai kekangannya yang tersendiri.

Pentaksiran Risiko Ergonomik

Cuba anda buat penaksiran risiko ergonomik asas berdasarkan gambar playar serbaguna di bawah. Berdasarkan penilaian alat tersebut, didapati:

  1. Postur pergelangan tangan kelihatan janggal apabila memegang playar
  2. Jarak pemegang playar (handle) jauh, menjangkau kelebaran tapak tangan
  3. Pemegang playar tidak selari, bahagian atas tangan menyentuh pelapik pemegang, manakala bahagian bawah tangan tidak menyentuh pelapik pemegang
  4. Pelapik pemegang yang keras

Keadaan yang dikenal pasti menyebabkan kerahan tenaga tinggi yang berlaku semasa aktiviti menggenggam, tekanan otot, dan postur janggal pergelangan tangan meningkatkan risiko gangguan rangka-otot (skeletal muscle).

Mekanisma Biomekanik Tangan

Tangan manusia mempunyai sktruktur kompleks yang membolehkan pelbagai aktiviti boleh dilakukan. Anggota tangan mempunyai pelbagai jenis dengan fungsi-fungsi tertentu, antaranya adalah aktiviti menggenggam. Secara umumnya, aktiviti menggenggam boleh dikelaskan kepada dua jenis:

  1. Power grip
  2. Precision grip

Daripada dua jenis ini, ia boleh diperincikan kepada beberapa lagi sub-kategori genggaman yang lain. Namun, tulisan saya kali ini tidak berhasrat untuk menghuraikan kategori-kategori tersebut.

Menggenggam: Melibatkan dua kelompok otot ekstrinsik dan otot intrinsik yang bermula dari lengan hingga ke tangan. 

Otot-otot ekstrinsik antara lainnya adalah flexor carpi radialis, palmaris longus, flexor carpi ulnaris, flexor digitorum superficialis, flexor digitorum profundus, flexor pollicis longus, pronator quadratus dan extensor carpi radialis longus, extensor digitorum communis, extensor pollicis brevis, extensor pollicis longus, dan extensor carpi radialis brevis.

Otot-otot intrinsik antara lainnya adalah kelompok otot thenar, hypothenar, interossei, dan lumbrical

Secara ringkasnya, kelompok otot yang spesifik khusus untuk aktiviti menggenggam adalah seperti berikut:

  • Kelompok fleksor: Flexor digitorum superficialis (FDS), flexor digitorum profundus (FDP) dan flexor pollicis longus (FDL) 
  • Kelompok ekstensor: Extensor digitorum communis (EDC), extensor pollicis brevis (EPB), extensor pollicis longus (EPL), extensor carpi radialis brevis.

 

Otot-otot seperti dinyatakan berkait di antara satu sama lain ketika berlaku pergerakan tangan dan perbuatan menggenggam tangan. Pergerakan berulang-ulang dan kerahan otot yang kerap berpotensi menyebabkan kecederaan pada bahagian otot tertentu.

Posisi ulnar deviation ini akan mengurangkan kekuatan genggaman. Sebilangan pengkaji menyatakan bahawa kehilangan kuasa genggaman boleh berlaku sehingga 20% berbanding genggaman postur tangan yang neutral.Walaupun kuasa genggaman telah berkurang, tetapi tekanan pergelangan tangan pula meningkat. Sebagai tambahan, ligamen yang terlibat semasa tangan berada dalam posisi ulnar deviation adalah radial collateral ligament.

Risiko gangguan rangka-otot tangan

Peningkatan risiko gangguan rangka-otot tangan adalah disebabkan oleh faktor-faktor kerahan tenaga tinggi dan postur janggal. Ia ditingkatkan lagi dengan pergerakan berulang-ulang yang boleh menyebabkan kelesuan tisu lembut sekaligus secara progresif boleh menyebabkan kecederaan. Keadaan ini sering disebut sebagai Kecederaan Terikan Berulang atau Repetitive Strain Injury (RSI).

Tisu lembut (otot, tendon dan ligamen) mempunyai had ambang yang tersendiri, justeru kerahan tenaga berlebihan tanpa rehat akan menyebabkan tekanan pada tisu sekaligus menyebabkan kelesuan dan melepasi had ambangnya; lantas menyebabkan kecederaan.

Langkah pencegahan dan kawalan

Berdasarkan penaksiran risiko dan mekanisme biomekanik tangan, maka dapatlah difahami bahawa untuk mengurangkan dan mencegah risiko gangguan rangka-otot tangan, ia perlu ditangani secara objektif.

Antara pendekatan objektif yang disyorkan adalah (saya merujuk syor yang dinyatakan dalam beberapa laman sesawang ergonomik, yang pada pandangan saya bersesuaian untuk diteladani dan beberapa syor berdasarkan pengalaman penaksiran risiko yang pernah saya lakukan):

  1. Bend the tool, not the wrist. Use tools with angled or bend handles when appropriate
  2. Separation between handles should be considered for effective gripping
  3. Ensure handle material and texture are non-slip, non-conductive and compressible materials
  4. Spring-loaded to return handle in an open position
  5. Grip span align for both upper and lower part of the hand
  6. Grip span longer than the widest part of your hand
  7. Ensure adequate rest period for specific muscles involved
  8. Ensure short and long terms intervention approaches
  9. Ensure proper design – coordinate with designer and engineer

Kesimpulan

Berdasarkan konteks penggunaan saya, yang mana alat yang digunakan hanya melibatkan kerja-kerja sementara dan rendah kekerapannya, maka isu berkaitan risiko ergonomik tidak menjadi perkara serius yang perlu diberi perhatian. Namun, berbeza cerita sekiranya anda seorang tukang paip yang menggunakan alat ini secara kerap atau untuk tempoh yang lama. Ia perlu diambil perhatian secara serius supaya risiko ergonomik dapat dikawal.

HFEM will organize Human Factors and Ergonomics Seminar - HFES 2022

The biennial seminar will bring you two special appearances and four spekers from various industries. Dr. Ming-Lun (Jack) Lu from NIOSH US will be talking about The Application of PtD in HFE and Dr. Halimahtun Mohd Khalid (HFEM Past President) will be delivering her talk on Behavioral Sciences – Everything you wanted to know but not afraid to ask.

HFEM Quarterly Newsletter (July 2022)    |   Page 3

Webinar

Watch our webinar series

Our special interest group (SIG) organized webinars on various topics and fields. If you missed our live webinar, don’t worry. Check out the videos recording in our Youtube channel.

Live talk with HFEJ: Ergonomics in Product Design   |   LINK

Article

We might have the same problem with a single-lever mixer tap

This is one of the worst daily use product designs that is prone to human error.

A single-lever mixer tap is normally used for a basin and shower in a centralized hot water supply system, often found in almost 4-star and above hotels.

I think most of us are annoyed with this design. It is quite challenging to mix the volume of hot and cold water until it reaches the comfortable bath water temperature, sometimes wasting a lot of water while adjusting the coarse and tight single-lever design. Human error might occur when the tap control could not be properly measured, thus mistakenly putting the wrong ratio of hot water above the appropriate temperature (37-38°C), consequently harming the user.

The probability of human error will escalate when users use it for the first time, and worsen if they naturally have lower guesstimation ability, especially among children, elderly, and disabled users.

When adjusting the water temperature, the users cannot stand directly under the shower head to avoid their bodies from freezing or boiling water. What would happen if the shower screen is designed with insufficient space allowance?

The single-lever tap design will introduce another cause of human error if the direction of the hot-cold water position is set in the opposite direction with convention – hot is left and cold is right (there is also an up and down handle). Or perhaps the design uses a different color code than the convention one – hot is red and blue is cold [1].

Yes, I found so many cases. The shower tap was correctly designed for cold (right) and hot (left), but the sink faucet was designed on the opposite side which was cold (left) and hot (right). It happened in the same washroom. Users could easily get confused and exposed to the hot-water hazard.

Before you select the tap design based on aesthetic appearance, please also consider the operational and safety concerns.

[1] These specifications are outlined in SPAN – Technical Specification: Water taps – single and combination taps

M. Hafizul Hilmi, C.ErgHF
Technip Energies

HFEM Quarterly Newsletter (July 2022)    |   Page 4

HUMAN FACTORS AND ERGONOMICS SOCIETY MALAYSIA
Level 3 & 4, Wisma Suria, Jalan Teknokrat 6, Cyber 5, 63000 Cyberjaya, Selangor, Malaysia
Phone: 03-8314 3360                  E-mail: secretary@hfem.org